Name Description Instruments/Softwares
Serial Communication(Null Modem-RS232) A null-modem connection is a connection created via RS232 protocol between two computers without a modem. Initially, the RS-232 standard was intended for connecting a teletype with a telephone modem. By means of modems, teletypes communicated with each other. Therefore, RS-232 connection is asymmetric: it requires the modem on one side and the data source/consumer on the other side. In the null-modem connection, the transmission and reception lines are connected crosswise. A null-modem connection is not standardized, so there are several possible wiring layouts.
ARP(encapsulated with ethernet) ARP is a protocol which is used for discovering the MAC address of a given system in the network. ARP help to find out the MAC address of the destination. We can say that ARP is used to map the IP Address to MAC Address. MAC address is required because the actual communication which takes place at the data link layer requires the MAC address. ARP is a protocol which is an interconnection between Network layer and Data link layer.
ICMP(encapsulated with ethernet) ICMP is a supporting protocol in the internet protocol suite. It is used by network devices, including routers, to send error messages and operational information indicating success or failure when communicating with another IP address. ICMP messages are typically used for diagnostic or control purposes or generated in response to errors in IP operations.
Switch configuration A switch is a networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device. It is typically described as a multiport bridge. It uses MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer of the OSI model.
VLAN VLANs logically segment switched network based on the functions, project teams, or applications of the organization regardless of the physical location or connections to the network. Devices on a VLAN are restricted to only communicating with devices that are on their own VLAN.
VTP VTP is the cisco proprietary protocol which propagates the definition of VLAN on the whole LAN. It carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain.
Routing Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network or across multiple networks. Here we are considering IP Routing by using the term routing. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables.
Subnetting Subnetting is a method to efficiently use the available IPv4 addresses. In subnetting we divide one network into multiple networks, by logically dividing the given network.